Introduction: Today’s era is constantly generating data, these data are large in size and are generated by people, devices and networks. These large data are commonly referred to as “Big” data. These are huge as well as complex in size that the regular software and hardware tools cannot handle them. Big data can be described as the data which outstrips the processing capabilities of conventional databases. In other words it can be explained as the data which are so huge in size that storing and processing them is a challenging task. In order to process this huge volumes of data which requires large time in storing needs modern computers and databases (Mallon, 2013).
It was noted that between 2006 and 2010, the data was raised tremendously by factor of six i.e. it was estimated to be about 988 Exabyte (Fijitsu, 2011). These data is believed to come from various sources but on the whole, they are collected from two main sources: Internet of things and social web. The internet of things deal with the information collected by the activities of people or the environment. These information are collected by the sensors which are placed at various location. However, the social web deals with all the information which are shared by people through their activities, locations, interest, likes and dislikes. Apart from these, the data collected from financial transactions, etc. come under social web (Townsend, 2012).
Basically, there are two types of storage
- Traditional: Traditional which was followed when data was not present in massive amount, and conventional which is preferred more now-a-days due to the large volume of data present. On the bases of these two terms several units were defined which are in table 2.1.The traditional storage system was supposed to be followed in the power of 2 and was represented by 210 i.e.1024 commonly called as Kibibyte. The other traditional storage value are shown below in the table.
S.no Value( Byte) Symbol Name 1 210 KiB Kibibyte 2 220 MiB Mebibyte 3 230 GiB Gibibyte 4 240 TiB Tebibyte 5 250 PiB Pebibyte 6 260 EiB Exbibyte 7 270 ZiB Zebibyte 8 280 YiB Yobibyte
The conventional storage system is represented in Byte which is the unit of digital information. A byte consists of 8 Bits. The Other Conventional value for storage is shown in the table 2.2 below:
Table 2.2 Table showing conventional storage values(Source: Noh & Lee, 2016)
S.no Value (Byte) Symbol Name 1 103 kB Kilobyte 2 106 MB Megabyte 3 109 GB Gigabyte 4 1012 TB terabyte 5 1015 PB Petabyte 6 1018 EB Exabyte 7 1021 ZB Zettabyte 8 1024 YB Yottabyte
This concludes that traditional storage method is not used on daily basis as it is found that it is outdated for big data. In contrast, conventional method is supposed to be used frequently.
It is found that data has grown tremendously in last few years and will be growing with same pace in coming years, this is represented graphically below. The graph depicts that in 2015 the data was estimated to be about 10 zettabyte, which will increase approximately to 35 Zettabyte till 2020. Nasscom (2014) claims that North America is currently largest producer of big data, Europe is second highest and India and South America are found to be lowest in producing data.
The growth of Big data in different countries, in year 2010 and the growing rate by 2020
(Source- Nasscom, 2014)